Read the story "An American Childhood" before answering Numbers 1 through 8.

An American Childhood
By Annie Dillard
    One Sunday afternoon Mother wandered through out kitchen, where Father was making a sandwich and listening to the ball game. The Pirates were playing the New York Giants at Forbes Filed. In those days, the Giants had a utility infielder named Wayne Terwilliger. Just as Mother passed through, the radio announcer cried-with undue drama-"Terwilliger bunts one!"
    "Terwilliger bunts one?" Mother cried back, stopped short. She turned. "Is that English?"
    "The player's name is Terwilliger," Father said. "He bunted."
    "That's marvelous," Mother said. "'Terwilliger bunts one.' No wonder you listen to baseball. 'Terwilliger bunts one.'"
    For the next seven or eight years, Mother made this surprising string of syllables her own. Testing a microphone, she repeated, "Terwilliger bunts one"; testing a pen or a typewriter, she wrote it. If, as happened surprisingly often in the course of various improvised gags, she pretended to whisper something else in my ear, she actually whispered, "Terwilliger bunts one." Whenever someone used a French phrase or a Latin one she answered solemnly, "Terwilliger bunts one." If Mother had had, like Andrew Carnegie,1 the opportunity to cook up a motto for a coat of arms, hers would have read simply and tellingly, "Terwilliger bunts one." (Carnegie's was "Death to Privilege.")
    She served us with other words and phrases. On a Florida trip, she repeated tremulously, " a royal porinciana." I don't remember the tree; I remember the thrill in her voice. She pronounced it carefully, and spelled it. She also liked to say "portulaca."
The drama of the words "Tamiami Trail" stirred her, we learned on the same Florida trip. People built Tampa on one coast, and they built Miami on another. Then-then height of visionary ambition and folly-they piled a slow, tremendous road through the terrible Everglades to connect them. To build the road, Men stood sunk in muck to their armpits. They fought off cottonmouth moccasins and six-foot alligators. They slept in boats, wet. They blasted muck with dynamite, cut jungle with machetes; they laid logs, dragged drilling machines, hauled dredges, heaped limestone. The road took fourteen years to build up by the shovelful, a Panama Canal in reverse. Then, capping it all, some genius thought of the word Tamiami: they called the road from Tampa to Miami, this very road under our spinning wheels, the Tamiami Trail. Some called it Alligator Alley. Anyone could drive over this road without a thought.
    Hearing this, moved, I thought all the suffering of road building was worth it (it wasn't my suffering), now that we had this new thing to hang these new words on-Alligator alley for those who liked things cute, and, for connoisseurs like Mother, for lovers of the human drama in all its boldness and terror, the Tamiami Trail.
    Back home, Mother cut clips from reels of talk, as it were, and played them back at leisure. She noticed that many Pittsburghers confuse "leave" and "let." One kind of relative brightened our mourning by mentioning why she'd brought her son to visit: "He wanted to come with me, so I left him." Mother filled in Amy and me on locutions we missed. "I can't do it on Friday," her pretty sister told a crowded dinner party, "because Friday's the day I lay in the stores."2
    (All unconsciously, though we ourselves used some pure Pittsburghisms. We said, "tele pole," pronounced "telly pole," for that splintery sidewalk post I loved to climb. We said "slippy"-the sidewalks are "slippy." We said, "That's all the farther I could go." And we said, as Pittsburghers folks say, " This glass needs washed," or "The dog needs walked"-a usage our father eschewed; he knew it was not standard English, not even comprehensible English, but he never let on.)
    "Spell 'poinsettia,'" Mother would throw out at me, smiling with pleasure. "Spell "sherbet.'" The idea was not to make us whizzes, but, quite the contrary, to remind us-and I, especially, needed reminding-that we didn't know it all just yet.
    "There's a deer standing in the front hall," she told me one quiet evening in the country.
    "No. I just wanted to tell you something once without your saying, 'I know.'"

1Andrew Carnegie: a wealthy Scottish-born American industrialist who made his money in the steel industry and gave millions of dollars to the public through fine arts and education
2lay in the stores: go shopping

1 How did Mother's fascination with unusual language affect the narrator?
2 Which statement best supports the idea that Mother has a sense of humor?
3 Why does Mother ask her children to spell tricky words?
4 What does the narrator meant when she says of the Tamiami Trail, "Anyone over this road without a thought"?
5 After hearing Father's explanation of the statement, "Terwilliger bunts one," why did Mother say, "No wonder you listen to baseball"?
6 What does this conversation reveal about Mother?
"There's a deer standing in the front hall," she told me one quiet evening in the country.
"No. I just wanted to tell you something once without your saying, 'I know.'"

7 What is the author's purpose in writing this passage?
8 Which word BEST describes the author's tone in the passage?

Read the article "Dive In! Careers in Oceanography" before answering Numbers 9 through 16.

DIVE IN! Careers in Oceanography
By Kathiann M. Kowalski

    Wearing scuba gear, Mia Tegner explores giant kelp forests1 off California's shores. As a research marine biologist at Scripps Institution of Oceanography in La Jolla, California, Tegner studies how kelp forest plants and animals interact and how climate, pollution, and other factors affect their distribution and abundance.
    "I've always love the ocean," says Tegner. "and the chance to do science outdoors instead of an indoor laboratory was extremely appealing to me."
A World of Possibilities
    With oceans covering 70 percent of the world's surface, oceanography-the study of oceans-offers a world of career opportunities. Marine biologist study ocean life. From near-shore habitats to cold, dim waters kilometers beneath the surface, the oceans are home to an amazing diversity of organisms.
    Water chemists study the chemical components of seawater. They also analyze the types and quantities of pollutants entering ocean waters. Using this information, environmental engineers seek ways to remedy pollution.
    Marine geography ranges from studying physical features and designing international boundary waters to analyzing marine resources, coastal development, and offshore facility sites. Doug Sherman at the University of Southern California Sea Grant Program studies coastal land forms, specifically beaches and dunes. "On average, I spend one or two months a year doing fieldwork," Sherman says. Meanwhile, physical scientists Ellen Raabe of the U.S. Geological Survey analyzes satellite photos and does fieldwork in boats to identify features on and near the coast. "We do identify what's where," she explains, "but actually, we're looking at what the processes are-physical, biological, and human-induced-that create our coastlines and change them."
    Marine geologists analyze underwater landforms and ocean-floor soil composition. "We want to look at the sea floor and figure out how it was made and where it came from," says Ellen Prager of the U.S. Geological Survey. She has done extensive work studying coral reefs and sand.
    "Marine engineering takes care of the design, specification, application, and operation of machinery used on ships, offshore drilling platforms, and almost anything that floats!" explains David Clark at DC Maritime Technologies in British Columbia, Canada. Engineering furthers ocean travel and exploration today and in the future. Meanwhile, marine archaeologists discover the past by studying ancient submerged sites and sunken ships. "Everything people have ever made was carried at one time or another by a ship," explains Texas A&M University's George Bass. He has excavated shipwrecks from the Bronze Age through the 11th century A.D.
Fresh Facets
    "A career in limnology, the study of lakes and streams, is also a fantastic career," notes Anders Andren, a water chemist at the University of Wisconsin's Sea Grant Program. One of the biggest challenges is protecting and improving the quality of fisheries and fresh drinking water supplies.
    "There's no new source of water that's going to come on line," stresses Dianne McKnight, president of the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, "so we've got to be smarter and do a better job of using and protecting the water resources that we have now."
    Whether you choose to study oceans or freshwater bodies, the field is never dull. "You're not pigeonholed,2 and you don't have to decide, 'I'm going to be a biologist,' and just do biology, or just do molecular biology, or just do a certain kind of chemistry," says McKnight. In her work studying lakes and streams in the Rocky Mountains and Antarctica, she especially enjoys the interdisciplinary nature of aquatic sciences, which means it draws upon many scientific fields.
Getting Started
    While formal oceanography training begins in graduate school, you can begin working toward a future career now. Try to get hands-on experience through taking classes at aquariums, volunteering for a marina or maritime museum, or getting involved in a nature group.
    "Get as broad an education as you can," advises research marine biologist Michael Latz at Scripps Institution of Oceanography. Master your middle school, junior high, and high school science classes. Mathematics plays a strong role too-particularly algebra, statistics, trigonometry, calculus, and computer science.
    At college, you will probably choose a major in one of the basic sciences: biology, chemistry, physics, geology, or mathematics. Graduate schools really want to see "students with a strong undergraduate record in the basic sciences," stresses Andren. If possible, seek opportunities to do a scientific research project related to marine science through a university, lab, or summer program. "In terms of applying to Scripps, the most competitive applicants not only do well in terms of their grades, or GRE(Graduate Record Exam) scores," says Latz, "but they've also done a research project."
Worth the Effort
    If all of this sounds just like a lot of study and hard work-it is. But the effort is will worth it! "Just to find out something that no one else has is very inspiring," says Latz. He truly loves his work studying bioluminescence3 in sea creatures.
    Beyond this, the world needs creative, skilled scientists to help protect the oceans. The oceans provide not only food and fuel for millions of people, but also materials for suck diverse products as toothpaste, newspaper print, salad dressing, and fabrics. Meanwhile, growing populations place increased pressures on the ocean's resources and pose greater threats from pollution.
    "The oceans are very important resources," warns Tegner. "We need to manage our human impacts on the environment, or we're going to be in real trouble."

1kelp forest: large area of underwater seaweed growth
2pigeonholed: forced into a category
3bioluminescence: the light given off by some living organisms

"Dive In! Careers in Oceanography" by Kathiann M. Kowalski, from Odyssey's December 1998 issue: Year of the Ocean. 1998, Cobblestone Publishing Company, 30 Grove Street, Suite C, Peterborough, NH 03458. Photographs Susan Green/Scripps Institution of Oceanography/UCSD.

9 In the first paragraph, the author mentions Mia Tegner's scuba gear to show that kelp forests
10 What organization pattern does the author use in the section titled "A World of Possibilities"?
11 According to the article, why will the ocean's resources face greater threats in the future?
12 What is the main difference between oceanographers and limnologists?
13 What do the sections "Fresh Facets" and "Worth the Effort" BOTH emphasize as an important part of water-related science?
14 What is the meaning of the word diverse as used in this sentence from the article?
The ocean provides not only food and fuel for millions of people, but also materials for such diverse products as toothpaste, newspaper print, salad dressing, and fabrics.
15 In this article, what does the author use to support the points she makes?
16 People who read this article will gain knowledge about

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